It is now time to consider the consequences of hypothyroidism on other organs such as the gallbladder and liver. Hypothyroidism is a very common cause of gallstones and there is also a clear link with concomitant hypercholesterolemia. Surprisingly, it is often the removal of the gallbladder or cholecystectomy that will reveal thyroid disease. It must be said that any surgery can lead to the awakening of a latent hypothyroidism, undoubtedly due to the trauma that this act represents. In the medical literature the frequent occurrence of thyroid failure following car accidents that have caused "whiplash" or whiplash syndrome has been cited, because the thyroid horns can be “broken” at the time of the injury to the cervical spine.
On the hepatic level, you should know that the vast majority of enzymatic reactions occurring in the liver are hampered in case of thyroid weakness, whether it is protein synthesis (for example, like sex hormones binding globulin or SHBG) or all of the detoxification reactions. In some hypothyroid patients, we can even see abnormally low levels of liver enzymes, transaminases and gamma-GT, a deficit that should arouse suspicion. Again, the opposite is also true, and given the essential role of thyroid hormones in lipid degradation, we can observe overloaded hepatocytes, expressed by the increase in transaminases. It is non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), also provoked by the excessive consumption of fructose. Links between hypothyroidism and hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) on one hand, and Chronic Hepatitis C on the other hand, have been published and are probably the consequence of diminished immune defences…
The next step concerns the intestines, starting by the impressive prevalence (up to 15% of cases) of autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with celiac disease (severe allergy to gluten). In the United Kingdom nutritionists go as far as to prohibit gluten for all patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, considering they are all, more or less, suffering from an allergy to gluten cereals! In any case, the guidelines of the medical authorities are telling: “we must always look for celiac disease in case of autoimmune thyroiditis and vice versa”.
Remaining focused on the subject of the intestinal mucosa, you should know that it hosts a crucial enzymatic reaction: the conversion of betacarotene into Vitamin A, the result of a reaction controlled by the enzyme betacarotene-15-15-dioxygenase, which is predominantly expressed in the intestinal mucosa. Consequently, this becomes an interesting marker for anyone suffering at this level and therefore of leaky gut syndrome. Even more stunning, this enzymatic conversion is accelerated by thyroid hormones! There is clinical evidence of this enzyme control, namely the orange hue of the palms and/or sole of the feet that can be seen in some hypothyroid patients due to the accumulation of beta-carotene. All of these are published: visit my website www.gmouton.com and the heading “Conferences – Functional Hormonology – Thyroid” (free download).
Thyroid hormones also activate several enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of vitamin B2 or riboflavin, in particular converting riboflavin into its active physiological form, flavin adenine dinucleotide or FAD. This enzymatic cofactor plays a key role in many enzymatic reactions, including the recycling of homocysteine, hence the propensity to hyperhomocysteinaemia that we have already mentioned as being a cardiovascular risk factor.